wolf, wolves,predators, predator management, population viability,  predator control, bear safety, bears, grizzly, black bears, bear viewing, bear behavior, Sarah Palin, predator control, slaughter, extermination, books, videos, conservation, stewardship, aerial hunting, aerial shooting, holocaust, adventure, Alaska, Board of Game, consulting, impacts
wolf, wolves,predators, predator management, population viability,  predator control, bear safety, bears, grizzly, black bears, bear viewing, bear behavior, Sarah Palin, predator control, slaughter, extermination, books, videos, conservation, stewardship, aerial hunting, aerial shooting, holocaust, adventure, Alaska, Board of Game, consulting, impacts
Published by
WildWatch Publications
A division of WildWatch, LLC
39200 Alma Ave. Soldotna, AK  99669
wildwatch.llc@gmail.com

© 2008 by  Stephen Stringham

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, or by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, without permission in writing from the publisher.



Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication data is available on file

ISBN  978-0-9796782-0-4

Search terms
1.  Bear attacks – North America – Prevention.
2.  Outdoor recreation – North America – Safety measures.
3.  Bear encounters
4.  Bear viewing – North America – Safety measures
5.  Wildlife viewing – North America – Safety measures
6.  Black bear – Behavior.
7.  Grizzly bear – Behavior.
8.  Brown bear – Behavior.
9.  Body language – Bears.
10. Aggression – Bears



CONTENTS

Dedication  / iii
B&W and color photographs  / v
Metric measurements  / v
Acknowledgments  / v
Prologue – The Phantom Grizzly  / vii
Preface  / x
Warning & disclaimer  / xv


1.  Negotiation with bears  / 1

WHISPERERS & NEUTRAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH BEARS  / 23


2.  Body language  / 25

3.  Aggression, socialization & familiarization among bears  / 37
*       Enhancing respect by fellow bears
*       Enhancing trust by fellow bears
*       Species differences in socialization
*       Familiarization with other animals
*       Familiarization with people
*       Neutralizing ursine interest in people
*       Misconceptions
o      Habituation
o      Familiarization
o      Wildness
o      Naturalness

4. Trust for people minimizes a bear’s defensiveness  / 57
*      Eroding trust - alienation
*      Enhancing trust
o     Repeated encounters with benign people
o     Appeasement
o     Bears encountering people at food concentrations.

5. Respect for people minimizes a bear’s offensiveness  / 69
*     Defensive discipline
o     Don’t let bears crowd you
*     Offensive discipline: bullying bears
*     Reinforcing threats

6. Limits on ursine tolerance  / 81

7. No crowding, no trespassing  / 85
*     Distance thresholds
*     Probability of each response being triggered at each distance
*     Look, but don’t touch or feed
*     Defense of space vs. turf

8. Approaching bears  / 111
*     Low risk situations
*     High risk situations

9. Slow approaches by a bear  / 131
*     Who approaches whom?
*     Waiting for a bear to pass you
*     If a bear chooses to approach you

10. Rapid approaches by a bear  / 165
*       Bears playing
*       Bears fleeing bears
*       Bears chasing prey
*       Bears seeking prey
*       Bears fleeing people or machines


COMMUNICATORS & SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH BEARS  / 181

11.  Socialization-diplomacy  / 183
*        Whisperers & Communicators     
*        Domestic animals: dogs & horses
*        Captive wildlife
*        Wild-reared orphaned bear cubs
*        Fully-wild bears
o       Socialization and trust
o       Socialization and respect: play & refereeing
o       Peerage and the risks of socializing


12.  Wild beings, wild minds  / 215


Endnotes  /  221
References & Suggested Reading  /  226
Index  / 231
Book ordering Info / 239
Author Bio  / 239