Index of  Bear  Webpages
Technical Documents (To read a pdf copy of a document, click on its title)

Stringham, S. F.  1964.  Effects of the alkaloid colchincine on embryhogenesis of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.  
Unpublished.

Stringham, S. F.  1969
   Estuarian ecology.   Unpublished


Stringham, S. F.  1974.
Mother-offspring relations in moose. Naturaliste Can.  101:325-369.

Stringham, S. F. ,  and A. B. Bubenik.  1974.
 Physical condition and survival rates of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.) as a
function of maturity-sex class ratios in the population.  Implications for ungulate harvest plans.  pp. 123-158 in W. Schroder
(ed.):   Tagungsbericht: Internationales Gamswild-Treffen, Institute for Wildforschung und Jagdkunde, Oberammergau, Germany.

Stringham, S. F.,  and A. B. Bubenik.  1975.
 Condition Physique et Taux de Survie du Chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra L., En
Fonction des Classes d'Age et de Sexe de la Population.  Bulletin de l'Office de la Chasse, Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques, Paris.  
Special No. 3:199-224.

Stringham, S. F.  .  1980.
 Possible impacts of hunting on the grizzly/brown bear (Ursus arctos), a Threatened species.  
Ursus  4:337-348.

Stringham, S. F.  1983.
 Roles of adult males in grizzly bear population biology.  Ursus 5:140-151.

Stringham, S. F.  1984.
 Responses by gizzly bear population dynamics to certain environmental and biosocial factors.  PhD.
Disseration, U Tennessee, 495 pp.

Stringham, S. F.  1986a.
 Effects of climate, dump closure, and other factors on Yellowstone grizzly bear litter size.
Ursus  6:33-39.

Stringham, S. F.  1986b.
 Ecosystem perspectives and modeling for Adirondack mammal predator-prey interactions.  unpubl.  
58pp. + 48pp. of appendices.

Stringham, S. F.  1987
. Consequences of bears eating garbage at dumps: an overview.   
Northwest Terr. Dept. of Renew. Res.  pp. 36-42.

Stringham, S. F.  1988a.
 Evolving standards for the legal admissibility and judgment of scientific evidence about the impacts of
human activity on bears or their habitat.
 Address to the Ninth Eastern Black Bear Workshop.  Ontario.  April 1988.

Stringham, S. F.  1988b.
 What are "necessary habitat" and "undue adverse effect on the natural environment?"  An
ecologist's view of Vermont Acts 250 (8a) and 248 (b5).  
Prefile testimony presented in hearings on Champlain (natural gas) Pipeline
before the Vermont Public Utilities Board, administrative hearing.

Stringham, S. F.  1988c.
 Is the Vermont black bear population crashing? Implications of a population reconstruction analysis.  
Prefile testimony presented in hearings on Champlain (natural gas) Pipeline before the Vermont Public Utilities Board, administrative
hearing.

Stringham, S. F.  1990a
.  Black bear reproductive rate relative to body weight in hunted populations.
Ursus  8:425-432.

Stringham, S. F.  1990b.  Grizzly bear reproductive rate relative to body size.  Ursus 8:433-443.

Stringham, S. F.  1994a.
Legal Protection for Marine Mammals and Habitat. USFWS report.


Stringham, S. F.  1994b.
Legal Basis for Protecting Polar Bear Habitat. USFWS report.

Stringham, S. F.  1994c
. Comments on the Marine Mammal Protection Act. USFWS report.

Stringham, S. F.  1994d. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act: annotated Synopsis. USFWS report.

Stringham, S. F.  1994e
. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act: basis for decisions. USFWS report.

Stringham, S. F.  1994f.
 Marine Mammal Protection Act - comments. USFWS report.

Stringham, S. F.  1995a.
 Aggregation of bears at food concentrations (ecocenters).  Ursus  9(2):223-230.

Stringham, S. F.  1995b.
 Is grizzly bear reproductive rate depressed by aggregations at concentrated food sources?  
Ursus  9(2):216-222.

Stringham, S. F.  1995c.  Is grizzly bear cub mortality rate elevated by aggregation at concentrated food sources?
Ursus 9(2):205-215.

Stringham, S. F.  1995d.  
Endangered Species Act – annotated Synopsis. USFWS report.

Stringham, S. F.  1995e.
 A meta-strategy for world bear conservation. Consulting report.

Stringham, S. F.  1996.
Buffered viability management of bear populations: a conceptual model for selecting  critical decision
thresholds.  
Consulting report.

Stringham, S. F.  1997a.
Critical Deficiencies in Information-Gathering Under the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Grizzly Bear
Recovery Plan (32 pp.)
[Testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  1997b.
Why Abundance of Infant Litters is Not a Reliable Index of Population Size and Sustainable Mortality
for Yellowstone Grizzly Bears?
(27 pp.)  [Testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  1998a
. Does the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan Exaggerate Sustainable Loss to Known  Human Kills?
(10 pp.) [Testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F. 1998b
. How the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan May Exaggerate Estimates for Total Population Size and
Sustainable Loss Extrapolated from Abundance of Adult Females.  (19 pp.)
 [Testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  1999.
 Assessing importance of specific habitat areas. [Unpubl. Report to the Kenai Brown Bear Stakeholders
Committee] (3 pp.)

Stringham, S. F.   2000a.
Estimating Extinction Risk for Grizzly Bears or Other Large Mammals: Is Foley’s Model Applicable?
(69 pp.
) [Testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.   2000b.
Critique of Boyce (2000) Metapopulation Analysis for the Bitterroot Population.  [Testimony to the
USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.   2000c.
Critique of the Draft Conservation Strategy for the Grizzly Bear in the Yellowstone Area.  (11 pp.)
[Testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F. 2006a.
Critique of the USFWS (1999) Draft Habitat-Based Recovery Criteria for the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear.
(30 pp.) [Update of 1999 testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  2006b
. Are Official Estimates of Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Population Size and Sustainable Mortality Critically
Biased by Annual Variation in Thoroughness of Censusing Adult Females with Infant Cub Litters? (103 pp.)
[Update of
testimony submitted in 1998 to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F. 2006c.
  Overview of my Comments on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service DPS-Delisting Proposal For Grizzly
Bears (11 pp.)
[Testimony to the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  2006d.
Crippling Vagueness of the Delisting / DPS Rule. (11 pp.) [Testimony to  the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  2006e.
 Are Yellowstone Grizzly Bears a Distinct Population Segment that is Read for Delisting? (25 pp.)
[Testimony to  the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  2006f
.  Are Delisting Criteria Legal? (2 pp.)  [Testimony to  the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.  2006g.
 Analysis of Population Trend for Grizzlies (13 pp.)  [Testimony to  the USFWS]

Stringham, S. F.   2010a.
 Bear behavior & ecology:  potential contributions by captive research to testing hypotheses &
answering questions generated by field research.  
Presentation at the Second Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S. F.  2010b.
 Ursid ontogenetic responses to variations in nutrition and adult male abundance.  Presentation at the
Second Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S. F.  2010c.  
Ursid pelage coloration: Ontogenetic, regional and seasonal variations.
Presentation at the Second Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S. F. 2010d.  Cognitive ethology of ursidae. Presentation at the Second Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S. F.  2010e.
 Ursid ethogram project. Presentation at the Second Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S. F.  2010f.
 Does habituation to humans really render captive bears unfit for release into the wilds? Presentation at
the Second Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S. F.  2010g.
 Distinguishing among North American bear species by hand- and foot-prints.  Presentation at the Second
Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S. F.  2010h.
 Does behavioral maturation continue during hibernation or aestivation?  A possible method for
distinguishing effects of maturation vs. Experience.
Presentation at the Second Bear Care Conference.

Stringham, S.   2011.  Aggressive body language of bears and wildlife viewing: a response to Geist (2011).  Human-wildlife Interactions 5
(2):177-191.

Stringham, S. 2012a.  Salmon fishing by bears and the dawn of cooperative predation.  J. of Comparative Psychology.  26(4):329-38.
doi: 10.1037/a0028238. Epub 2012 Oct 22

Stringham, S.  2012b.  Managing risk from bears and other potentially lethal wildlife: predictability, accountability, and liability.  Human-
wildlife Interactions 7(1):5-7.

Stringham, S., & A. Bryant.  2015.  Distance-Dependent Effectiveness of Diversionary Bear Bait Sites.  Human-Wildlife Interactions.
9(2)::229–235


Wei, Fuwen, G. Yang, J. Hu, & S. Stringham. 2004
.  Balancing panda and human needs for bamboo shoots in Mabian  Nature
Reserve China: Predictions from a logistic-like model.  in D. Lindberg (ed), Panda Conservation,.  U. Calif Press.   


Non-Technical Consulting Reports  

Stringham, S. F.  1993.  Native American Environmental Institute - a Proposal submitted to the Native American Fish &
Wildlife Society

Stringham, Steve  & Bruce McCurtain.  2009.  Annual Operating Plan 2010-2019 for Campgrounds
and Other Facilities in Chugach National Forest, Alaska.  
Alaska Recreational Management.  266 pp. + attachments.
Stephen F. Stringham, PhD

Professional Documents Authored
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