41.  If a nearby bear appears to be trying to intimidate you into surrendering your food, which of the following
tactics is most likely to minimize your risk?  
(2 pts)  (circle each effective tactic).

a.        Dropping to the ground in a fetal position.
b.        Dropping to the ground, laying on your stomach, with your legs widely spread.
c.        Charging the bear, while yelling, throwing things at it, or using any better weapon or deterrent available.
d.        Running from the bear.
e.        Climbing the tree
f.         Praying to Spirit Bear
g.        Reciting passages form the King James version of the Bible.
h.        Reciting passages from the Talmud.
i.         Reciting passages from the Koran.
j.         Surrendering your food to the bear
k.        Moving to within an arm's length of any nearby people.
m.       Tripping anyone nearby, then running.
n.        Shooting the bear with whatever firearm you have available.
o.        Attacking the bear with any available weapon?
p.        Attacking the bear with pepper spray or any other deterrent you have available.
q.        Speak to the bear and wave your arms to let it know you are there, and you are human.
r.         Break a stick behind your back, in hopes that the bear will fear that you have reinforcements approaching
  through the woods behind you.



42.  
If a nearby bear appears concerned that you might want to steal its food (e.g., a rotting moose carcass), which
of the following tactics is most likely to minimize your risk?  
(2 pts)  (circle each effective tactic).

a.        Dropping to the ground in a fetal position.
b.        Dropping to the ground, laying on your stomach, with your legs widely spread.
c.        Charging the bear, while yelling, throwing things at it, or using any better weapon or deterrent available.
d.        Running from the bear.
e.        Climbing the tree
f.         Praying to Spirit Bear
g.        Reciting passages form the King James version of the Bible.
h.        Reciting passages from the Talmud.
i.         Reciting passages from the Koran.
j.         Surrendering your food to the bear
k.       Moving to within an arm's length of any nearby people.
m.       Tripping anyone nearby, then running.
n.        Shooting the bear with whatever firearm you have available.
o.        Attacking the bear with any available weapon?
p.        Attacking the bear with pepper spray or any other deterrent you have available.
q.        Speak to the bear and wave your arms to let it know you are there, and you are human.
r.         Break a stick behind your back, in hopes that the bear will fear that you have reinforcements approaching
  through the woods behind you.


43.  
If a nearby bear appears concerned that you might be a threat to it or to its cubs, which of the following tactics
is most likely to minimize your risk?  
(2 pts)  (circle each effective tactic).

a.        Dropping to the ground in a fetal position.
b.        Dropping to the ground, laying on your stomach, with your legs widely spread.
c.        Charging the bear, while yelling, throwing things at it, or using any better weapon or deterrent available.
d.        Running from the bear.
e.        Climbing the tree
f.         Praying to Spirit Bear
g.        Reciting passages form the King James version of the Bible.
h.        Reciting passages from the Talmud.
i.         Reciting passages from the Koran.
j.         Surrendering your food to the bear
k.       Moving to within an arm's length of any nearby people.
m.       Tripping anyone nearby, then running.
n.        Shooting the bear with whatever firearm you have available.
o.        Attacking the bear with any available weapon?
p.        Attacking the bear with pepper spray or any other deterrent you have available.
q.        Speak to the bear and wave your arms to let it know you are there, and you are human.
r.         Break a stick behind your back, in hopes that the bear will fear that you have reinforcements approaching
  through the woods behind you.


44.   
If you are on foot and suddenly find yourself within 200 yards of a bear, what should be your first 3 tactics to
minimize risk while you assess the bear's mood and intentions from its body language?  
(2 pts)  (circle each effective
tactic)

a.        Dropping to the ground in a fetal position.
b.        Dropping to the ground, laying on your stomach, with your legs widely spread.
c.        Charging the bear, while yelling, throwing things at it, or using any better weapon or deterrent available.
d.        Running from the bear.
e.        Climbing the tree
f.         Praying to Spirit Bear
g.        Reciting passages form the King James version of the Bible.
h.        Reciting passages from the Talmud.
i.         Reciting passages from the Koran.
j.         Surrendering your food to the bear
k.       Moving to within an arm's length of any nearby people.
m.       Tripping anyone nearby, then running.
n.        Shooting the bear with whatever firearm you have available.
o.        Attacking the bear with any available weapon?
p.        Attacking the bear with pepper spray or any other deterrent you have available.
q.        Speak to the bear and wave your arms to let it know you are there, and you are human.
r.         Break a stick behind your back, in hopes that the bear will fear that you have reinforcements approaching
  through the woods behind you.


45.   
If you are on foot and suddenly find yourself within 300 yards of a bear, what should be your first 3 tactics to
minimize risk while you assess the bear's mood and intentions from its body language?  
(2 pts)  (circle each effective
tactic)      

a.        Dropping to the ground in a fetal position.
b.        Dropping to the ground, laying on your stomach, with your legs widely spread.
c.        Charging the bear, while yelling, throwing things at it, or using any better weapon or deterrent available.
d.        Running from the bear.
e.        Climbing the tree
f.         Praying to Spirit Bear
g.        Reciting passages form the King James version of the Bible.
h.        Reciting passages from the Talmud.
i.         Reciting passages from the Koran.
j.         Surrendering your food to the bear
k.       Moving to within an arm's length of any nearby people.
m.       Tripping anyone nearby, then running.
n.        Shooting the bear with whatever firearm you have available.
o.        Attacking the bear with any available weapon?
p.        Attacking the bear with pepper spray or any other deterrent you have available.
q.        Speak to the bear and wave your arms to let it know you are there, and you are human.
r.         Break a stick behind your back, in hopes that the bear will fear that you have reinforcements approaching
  through the woods behind you.




BONUS QUESTIONS (2 pts each)

46.  What aspects of a bear's actions and body language might indicate that it is considering someone as prey?


47.  What aspects of a bear's actions and body language might indicate that it is NOT considering someone as prey?


48.  What aspects of a bear's actions and body language might indicate that it considers someone as a threat to
itself or its companions?  


49.  What aspects of a bear's actions and body language might indicate that it is curious, but not predatory?


50.  What aspects of a bear's actions and body language might indicate that it is playful, and perhaps
inviting someone to play?






Part 2:  NATURAL HISTORY

At the time of your exam, BVA will select 25 questions from the following list for you to answer.  Each is worth 4 points.  These
are the same questions clients are likely to ask you.  Each heading (e.g., BEAR SAFETY) is linked to answers you can use for
clients and for this exam.  Please put your answer in your own words, approximately as you might answer a client.  Don't just
copy the answer from this website.


BEAR SAFETY
•           How dangerous are bears?
*        What major factors govern your risk of being injured by a bear?
*        How commonly are people mauled by a bear?
*        Why do bears sometimes injure people?
•        Why do bears sometimes injure people?
•        How common are serious or fatal injuries?
•        How common are minor injuries?
•        Are grizzly/brown bears fiercer than black bears?
•        How can I stay safe if I encounter a bear?
•        Should I carry a gun in bear country?
•        How effective is pepper spray?


BEAR IDENTIFICATION
•        How many species of bears are there?  
•        On which continents do they live?
•        What’s the difference between brown and grizzly bears?
•        How do you distinguish black bears from brown bears?
•        Where in North America do black, brown and polar bears live?        
•        Are polar bears the only kind of white bear?
•        What are the coat colors for each species?
•        How do you distinguish a bear’s sex?
•        How do you estimate a bear’s age or maturity?
•        How do you distinguish one bear from another?


BEARS OF THE WORLD (supplement to Bear Identification)
*        Photos of each bear species
*        Maps of the geographic distribution of each species
*        Photos of the skull of each species
*        Illustrations of skeletons
*        Links to pages on bear evolution, with information about extinct species


BEAR LIFE CYCLE
•        What are the stages of maturity for a bear?  
•        What are boars and sows?
•        What does it mean that a female is “in season”?
•        What are the mating seasons for bears?
•        How and why do bears court?  How do they mate?
•        How do bears compete for mates?
•        At which ages do males and females reproduce?
•        When does gestation occur?  When are cubs born?
•        What are the roles of adult males and females in caring for cubs?
•        What is the typical sex ratio of cubs at birth?
•        How is the ability of a juvenile to survive on its own related to its age?
•        At which age are cubs weaned?
•        At which age do they become independent of their mother?  
•        What is a subadult?
•        Do bears adopt orphans?
•        How long do bears typically live?
•        How do bears compare ecologically to chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans?
•        How intelligent are bears compared to great apes?


BEAR ECOLOGY
•        What foods do bears eat?  Which nutrients do these foods provide?
•        Which types of habitat are occupied by each species?
•        What preys on bears?
•        What other enemies do bears have?
•        Where do bears den?
•        When do bears den?
•        What is hibernation?
•        Why hibernate?  
•        Is the torpor of all hibernating animals equally deep”
•        What other differences occur between small- vs. large-bodied hibernators?
•        Why don’t bears store enough fat that they don’t need to hibernate?
BEAR VIEWING GUIDE CERTIFICATION
Certification Exam Questions
for
APPRENTICE BEAR NATURALIST GUIDE
p. 2
Exam based on the following study materials, which you can consult during the exam.
Index of  Bear  Webpages
Bear Viewing Association
To watch, to wonder, and to conserve
gobearviewing@hotmail.com
Ph/Fax (907) 260-9059 (Office)
39200 Alma Ave.    Soldotna, AK  99669
bear viewing Alaska, bear photography, bear safety, bear behavior



Answers to questions commonly asked by wildlife viewers on the topics listed below:
Bear Viewing Association
To watch, to wonder, and to conserve
gobearviewing@hotmail.com
Ph/Fax (907) 260-9059 (Office)
39200 Alma Ave.    Soldotna, AK  99669
bear viewing Alaska, bear photography, bear safety, bear behavior
(c) 2016 S. Stringham