OPEN BOOK EXAM.  Feel free to use your books and these webpages while taking the exam.

Score  
101-110 = Honors     90-100 =  A     80-89  =  B     Lower  =  BVA will offer you life insurance and be your beneficiary


                                 
 


To mark an answer, circle the appropriate letter(s):    e.g., if "a" and "c" are both correct, circle both.  (a)  and     (c)

1.   How dangerous are bears?  In other words, how high is someone’s risk of being assaulted (no more than
minor injury) or attacked (serious or fatal injury)?
 (5 pts)

2.   
What are the two major components for risk of attack by any bear?   (2 pts) (Circle both)
a.        Risk that it is a mother with cubs.
b.        Risk that you will detect a nearby bear.
c.        Risk that you will be near a bear.
d        Risk that it is an adult, rather than a juvenile or a cub.
e.        Risk that a bear will detect you nearby.
f.        Risk that the bear will assault you during the encounter.
g.        Risk that the bear will threaten you during the encounter.
h.        Risk that the bear will try to disable or kill you?        

3.   
Which factors are likely to affect a bear’s response to you – e.g., whether it flees from you, greets you, ignores
you, or attacks you?
(Circle all correct answers)
(3 pts)
a.        Whether it is a grizzly vs. a black bear.
b.        Whether it is a grizzly vs. a polar bear.
c.        Whether it is a mother with cubs.
d.        Whether it is an adult, rather than a juvenile or a cub.
e.        Whether the encounter occurs during the breeding season (late May through early July?
f.         Whether the encounter occurs during late fall when bears are focused on fattening up for hibernation?
g.        Whether a nearby stream is filled with migrating salmon.

4.  
For each of the following pairs of options, which option is linked to the highest attack risk? (4 pts)
a.        grizzly vs. black bear
b.        black bear adult male vs. female without cubs
c.        grizzly bear adult male vs. female without cubs
d.        June vs. July
e.        August vs. October
f.         Whether there is vs. is not a stream near by up which salmon are migrating.
g.        Whether salmon have been scarce vs. abundant over the past month.
h.        Whether ripe berries have been scarce vs. abundant over the past month.
i.         Dense brush where you can’t see bears, and they can’t see you for more than 20 yards vs. 100 yards
j.         Dense brush where you can’t see bears, and they can’t see you for more than 100 yards vs. 300 yards
k.        Day with strong wind vs. with little wind.
l.         When you are hiking beside a river vs. on a hillside


5.  
 Approximately how many people have been killed by black bears in North America  since 1900?  (1 pt)
a.  20,     b.  30,    c.  40,    d.  50,    e.  60,    f. 70,    g.  80,   h.  90,   i.  100,  j.  120

6.   
Approximately how many black areas are there in North America? (1 pt)
a.        100,000
b.        250,000
c.        500,000
d.        750,000
e.     1,000,000
f.      1,250,000
g.     1,500,000

7.   
Divide the number of black bears by the number of fatal attacks by black bears to estimate the number of
bears per attack.  Now divide those numbers to calculate the number of attacks per X bears.  For example, using
hypothetical figures: 10 attacks/1000 bears = 1 attack/100 bears.
 You don’t need to be exact, just provide a ballpark
figure (e.g., 13 attacks/1050 bears would still be roughly 1 attack/100 bears.  (2 pts)

8.  
Approximately how many people have been seriously injured or killed by grizzly bears in North America since
1900?
 (1 pt)
a.  20,     b.  30,    c.  40,    d.  50,    e.  60,    f. 70,    g.  80,   h.  90,   i.  100,  j.  120

9.
 Approximately how many grizzly areas are there in North America? (1 pt)
a.        10,000
b.        20,000
c.        30,000
d.        40,000
e.        50,000
f.         60,000
g.        70,000

10.
Divide the number of black bears by the number of fatal attacks by black bears to estimate the number of
bears per attack.  Now divide those numbers to calculate the number of attacks per X bears.  For example, using
hypothetical figures: 10 attacks/1000 bears = 1 attack/100 bears.  You don’t need to be exact, just provide a
ballpark figure (e.g., 13 attacks/1050 bears would still be roughly 1 attack/100 bears.
 (2 pts)

11.  
Contrast the number of bears per serious or fatal attack between black vs. grizzly bears.  How many times
higher is the risk from a grizzly than the risk from a black bear?
 (2 pts)        


12.  
Your risk of being attacked may depend on the number of bears in your area; but it doesn’t depend on the
number of people
.  True or False?  (1 pt)

13.  
The risk of someone being attacked may depend on the number of bears in your area; but it doesn’t depend
on the number of people.
 True or False?  (1 pt)


14.  
Your risk of encountering a bear increases along with: (Circle all correct answers) (3 pts)
a. The numbers of bears in your area:
b. How long you spend in that area:
c. The abundance of prime bear foods in your immediate area (e.g., major berry patches or salmon streams):
d. How much of the time you travel or camp along the trails frequented by bears (e.g., along river banks, especially those with a
current salmon run):
e. How commonly bears have obtained food from camps or people in your immediate area:  
f. How attractive odors from you or your camp are to bears:
g. Whether you go looking for bears (e.g., to hunt or view them):  

15.  
What are 3 major motivations (reasons) for a bear injuring someone?  (fill in the blanks)  (3 pts)
a.        Goldilocks sleeping in their beds.
b.        Anyone else sleeping in their beds.
c.        ____________________
d.        ____________________
e.        ____________________


16.
What are the two major reasons for defensive aggression by a bear? (2 pts)
a.        A bear perceiving someone as a threat to themselves or their companions (e.g., cubs or siblings).
b.        A bear perceiving someone as a rival for its food.
c.        A bear wanting to steal a person’s food.
d.        A bear perceiving a person as prey.
e.        A bear being irritable, perhaps because it is hungry or tired or in pain.
f.        A bear having recently lost a fight with another bear.
g.        A bear having recently won a fight with another bear.
h.        A bear having recently won a fight with a caribou.


17.
What are the two major reasons for offensive aggression by a bear? (2 pts)
a.        A bear perceiving someone as a threat to themselves or their companions (e.g., cubs or siblings).
b.        A bear perceiving someone as a rival for its food.
c.        A bear wanting to steal a person’s food.
d.        A bear perceiving a person as prey.
e.        A bear being irritable, perhaps because it is hungry or tired or in pain.
f.        A bear having recently lost a fight with another bear.
g.        A bear having recently won a fight with another bear.
h.        A bear having recently won a fight with a caribou.


18.
When a bear perceives someone as a competitor (i.e. rival), which prizes are most likely to be at stake, from
the bear’s perspective?
 (Name 4) (2 pts).


19.  
Which three bear species inhabit North America?  (3 pts)

20.  
What is the relative likelihood of each species preying on someone?  Phrase your answers in terms of
“a” and “b” below:
a.        Total number of predatory attacks:  (1 pt)
b.        Predatory attacks per encounter with a human:  (1 pt)


21.
What is the relative likelihood of each species perceiving someone as a threat, then responding with
protective aggression against that person? Compare among the three species of North American bears.  (3 pts)


22.  If you get between a mother and her cubs, which species is most likely, and which is least likely, to attack you
to defend her cubs?  
(3 pts)

23.
Which actions by people are most likely to make a bear perceive them as threats to themselves, their cubs, or
other companions?  
(3 pts)

24.
Which actions by people are most likely to trigger minor injuries by a bear?   (1 pt)

25.
What is the difference between “protective” aggression vs. “defensive” aggression? (3 pts)


26.
If a defensive bear just inflicts minor injury when it swats or bites someone, why did it not inflict serious or
fatal injury?   
(circle all correct answers)  (2 pts)
a.        Such swats and bites normally do little or no injury to a fellow bear?
b.        The bear is physically too weak (e.g., because it is injured or ill or aged).
c.        The bear is not trying to injure you, but to communicate with you – it is sending you a message?
d.        The bear is afraid to swat or bite you harder, for fear you will retaliate and hurt it.
e.        The bear is tasting you as possible prey.
f.        The bear is testing whether you are vulnerable, and thus easy prey.

27.
If a bear swats or bites you to send a message, what message is that likely to be?  (3 pts)

28.
During an encounter, what precautions can even a novice take to minimize risk of injury? (3 pts)

29
. What are the advantages of carrying a firearm in any area where you might encounter a bear?  (2 pts)

30.
What are the disadvantages of carrying a firearm in any area where you might encounter a bear?  (2 pts)

31.
What are the advantages of carrying pepper spray in any area where you might encounter a bear? (2 pts)

32.
What are the disadvantages of carrying pepper spray in any area where you might encounter a bear?  (2 pts)

33.
If you carry a gun, what are the advantages and disadvantages for each of the following types of firearm?
(2 pts)                               a.   Shotgun                   b.   Rifle              c.  Pistol

34.  
How do the advantages and disadvantages of carrying a firearm differ according to whether the bear you
encounter is a grizzly vs. black vs. polar bear?   
(2 pts)


35.
Hunters commonly kill bears with a firearm or even with a bow.  Do those weapons tend to be equally effective
during an
emergency – for instance if you are being charged by an angry bear?
 Explain your answer.   (2 pts)


36.
If you had to shoot a bear with a shotgun, what is the “minimum” caliber to use?  What is the best kind of
ammunition?
 
(2 pts)

37.  
If you had to shoot a bear with a rifle, what is the “minimum” caliber to use?  What is the best kind of
ammunition?
 (2 pts)

38.  
If you had to shoot a bear with a pistol, what is the “minimum” caliber to use?  What is the best kind of
ammunition?
 2 pts)

39.
If a bear approaches you and you decide to run, would your chances of escaping unharmed be increased or
decreased by tripping someone near you, just before you flee?
 Explain your answer.  (2 pts)


40.  
If a nearby bear appears predatory – i.e., planning to eat you – which of the following tactics is most likely to
minimize your risk?  
(3 pts) (circle each effective tactic).
a.       Dropping to the ground in a fetal position.
b.       Dropping to the ground, laying on your stomach, with your legs widely spread.
c.       Charging the bear, while yelling, throwing things at it, or using any better weapon or deterrent available.
d.       Running from the bear.
e.       Climbing a tree
f.        Praying to Spirit Bear
g.       Reciting passages form the King James version of the Bible.
h.       Reciting passages from the Talmud.
i.        Reciting passages from the Koran.
j.        Surrendering your food to the bear
k.       Moving to within an arm's length of any nearby people.
m       Tripping anyone nearby, then running.
n.       Shooting the bear with whatever firearm you have available.
o.       Attacking the bear with any available weapon?
p.       Attacking the bear with pepper spray or any other deterrent you have available.  
q.       Speak to the bear and wave your arms to let it know you are there, and you are human.
r.        Break a stick behind your back, in hopes that the bear will fear that you have reinforcements approaching through the
   woods behind you.


                                                                Continue to page 2 of the exam
Certification Exam Questions
APPRENTICE BEAR NATURALIST GUIDE
p. 1
Part 1:  BEAR SAFETY
Exam based on these study materials, which you can consult during the exam.
Index of  Bear  Webpages
Bear Viewing Association
To watch, to wonder, and to conserve
gobearviewing@hotmail.com
Ph/Fax (907) 260-9059 (Office)
39200 Alma Ave.    Soldotna, AK  99669
bear viewing Alaska, bear photography, bear safety, bear behavior



Answers to questions commonly asked by wildlife viewers on the topics listed below:
Index of  Bear  Webpages
Bear Viewing Association
To watch, to wonder, and to conserve
gobearviewing@hotmail.com
Ph/Fax (907) 260-9059 (Office)
39200 Alma Ave.    Soldotna, AK  99669
bear viewing Alaska, bear photography, bear safety, bear behavior