The techniques and products described on this website, or in other Bear Viewing Association materials, are meant to minimize your risk of bear-
inflicted injury, while simultaneously minimizing your impact on bears. Hence, when words like “should” or “shouldn’t” are used, at least by
implication, these are not moral or authoritative demands, but shorthand statements of causation. For example:
“If you surprise a sow with cubs at close range, initially stand your ground and do nothing to further alarm the bear.”
That translates into:  “If you surprise a sow with cubs at close range, [you are most likely to minimize attack risk and unnecessary harm to bears
if you] initially stand your ground and do nothing to further alarm the bear.”

BVA’s advice is based on a synthesis of current research, writings, and informed opinion. However, understanding bear psychology is still in its
infancy.  Research on bear behavior and on safety precautions is ongoing and continues to provide new insights, approaches, and solu-tions.  
You should stay current with new discoveries.

Because of the unique and unpredictable circumstances of each human-bear encounter, even  the  best techniques  cannot  guarantee  any-
one’s safety.  Furthermore, we have no control how you apply recommended techniques or products.

You are solely responsible to make appropriate decisions for the unique situations you encounter.  Any actions you take should be based on
your wisest decisions and your sound judgment.  It is your responsibility to be cautious in bear habitat. Nothing on this website or in other BVA
materials should be interpreted to mean that you can reduce the degree of caution necessary in dealing with bears, especially in situations
where bears should be avoided, and where diplomacy is less appropriate for dealing with bears than deterring or killing them.

Neither the author of this book, nor anyone else involved in its publication or sale, warranties that following its advice will protect you from injury
by bears. We shall have no responsibility nor accept any liability for any actions you take as a result of information in this book. Not all bear-
safety experts agree on everything in this (or any other) book.

To round out your education, consult additional sources, written and otherwise, including BVA’s website bear-viewing-in-alaska.info.

It is extremely difficult to discern reliable patterns in the behaviors of bears and people, and then to convey those very complex patterns in
words that are sufficiently simple, brief and clear to satisfy readers.  Given the limitations on what words can convey, you should supplement
reading this and other written material with careful study of video foot-age on bear behavior.  BVA is producing DVDs for this purpose, including
one to supplement this book, showing many of the encounters de-scribed herein.

You should also get field training under the guidance of a certified expert in all aspects of avoiding, appeasing, intimidating, deterring and
killing bears.  If you plan on trying to socialize with bears, also get tutoring in “communicator” techniques.

Back to "Guides"
Bear Naturalist Guide
Certification Manual
Disclaimer
Index of  Bear  Webpages
Bear Viewing Association
To watch, to wonder, and to conserve
gobearviewing@hotmail.com
Ph/Fax (907) 260-9059 (Office)
39200 Alma Ave.    Soldotna, AK  99669
bear viewing Alaska, bear photography, bear safety, bear behavior



Answers to questions commonly asked by wildlife viewers on the topics listed below:
Index of  Bear  Webpages
Bear Viewing Association
To watch, to wonder, and to conserve
gobearviewing@hotmail.com
Ph/Fax (907) 260-9059 (Office)
39200 Alma Ave.    Soldotna, AK  99669
bear viewing Alaska, bear photography, bear safety, bear behavior